In her office at the legendary Cavendish Laboratory in West Cambridge, she generously shared her insights (some are applicable to life) and hopes for our future creative generations, especially those who are interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
In the 800th anniversary year of the University of Cambridge, Professor Athene Donald of the Cavendish Laboratory, has received the 2009 L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Award. The awards established by the cosmetics company L'Oreal jointly with UNESCO, on the premise that the world needs science ... science needs women, have annually celebrated the achievements of five leading women scientists - one scientist from each continent. Dubbed as the Nobel Prize for Women in Science, the award aims to change the perception of women in science.
Could you please tell us about your scientific contributions which have led to your L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Award?
Athene: "I found this a very difficult question, because I think it's a lot of different thing and it's the sum of all that I do. I have had a career where I have worked in lots of different area, and my strength is making connections between different fields.
I have done lots of works in electron microscopy, developed a technique known as environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) for samples which are traditionally very difficult to look at using an ordinary scanning electron microscope, which works in a vacuum. If you are looking at wet or biological samples, you have to do a lot of sample preparation first. ESEM allows you to look at biological materials without drying them out and killing them.
We have also been looking at how native proteins stick together. When we deliberately denature proteins, they unfold and start to behave like synthetic polymers (plastics), which formed part of my earlier career. We use the ideas of polymer physics and apply them to biological materials.
By moving from traditional physics to non-traditional areas, you open up a lot of new opportunities. One of the things that I am very proud of is that we used Small Angle X¬–ray scattering to study the starch granule. We developed a structural model for how the starch granules are put together, and at one point this was being taught at Part IB Plant Sciences. I thought it was wonderful to be able to bridge into a different discipline!"
How do you nurture inter-disciplinary collaborations?
Athene: "Within the university, we have a lot of brilliant people. One of the challenges is finding someone to spend some time talking to you to the point that they understand what you are saying and vice versa. Sitting in committees with different people has helped to find new contacts. It takes time to do inter-disciplinary work. A key thing in my inter-disciplinary work is finding people who you like, who share ways of thinking about the world, and who are prepared to commit the necessary time."
Athene is also the director of a newly-established Physics of Medicine Initiative in the University. She continued, "We try to bring physicists, biologists, and clinicians together. The traditional medical physics discipline is aimed at developing techniques, such as MRI and ultrasound, and to apply them in clinics. That's what I would refer to as Medical Physics, and is not what we are doing.
We intend to take a different set of tools to solve biological problems, for example to use lasers to deform cells in order to distinguish healthy from cancerous cells. This is one step back from the clinic, but will give us a profound insight into what is going on. This is rather different from traditional medical physics. It is harder to find clinicians than scientists, who are willing to share what they need with us."
Her secret is to be constantly innovative.
"I have never stayed working in a single area for very long. I always started working in a new area before I drop one. For me, I have never wanted to know absolutely everything about a very small area. I am much more interested in taking a broad approach. It's risky.
Sometimes I am not always successful, but that way you get new ideas and new challenges. I started researching starch in 1986, it went on for 20 years, and now I am not working on it at all.
Knowing when to stop is important. Now, I am working on proteins, cells, and also photovoltaics. My projects tend to have about a ten-year lifespan. We take a technique, start off in a very simple system, and then make it more complex."
How can we attract more female students to pursue science?
Athene: "The first challenge is in school. Science is not a very popular subject, it seems hard and people don't know what it can be used for in a career.
The second challenge is not to lose women at the later stages, when you are 25 and upwards. You talk to up and coming female researchers, who ask how can I manage to have a family and an academic career?
You don't necessarily get your permanent position until you are in your 30s. There are too many people out there saying you can't do it.
We need to counter that view, and there are many different ways of achieving your goals. If you want to be an academic scientist, it's very hard work, you probably have to give up other things like much of a social life, but it's not impossible."
How do you combine family and work?
Athene shared, "my family is very important to me. My husband is a mathematician, so we can understand each other’s science up to a point. My husband has been fantastically supportive.
As a woman and a scientist, you really need a supportive partner. My husband actually stopped his career, he became the primary carer. Not every couple will find that solution acceptable, you have to find the right solution for you, and that's going to vary for everyone."
On renewable energy, Athene thinks that we need to do a better job in researching on energy, because the world is going to have problems if scientists can't solve that. If we don't solve the energy crisis, we may end up having to go back to living in something like Victorian-time conditions.
In the next ten years, Athene will continue to use microscopy and microrheology (a non-invasive technique to analyze the visco-elastic properties of complex fluids) for understanding particle diffusion in cellular systems.
At the time of this interview (200902), Athene and her collaborators, Viji Draviam at the Department of Genetics in the University of Cambridge, have just begun a project to make patterns on which to stick cells and to investigate on how the patterns affect cell divisions and the implications in cancer.
You may be interested in their 2013 publication on live imaging of the spindle orientation during cell division (mitosis) to determine the function of LGN - a protein that is critical for spindle positioning.
A final take home message : Athene advised that everyone should know that it’s okay to ask questions. Most people need help.
This piece of advice also reminds me on a Chinese idiom 不耻下问, which literally means No Shame To Question.
Never feel embarrassed to ask and learn.